What is gestational diabetes?
Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy and disappears after delivery. This disorder is more common in obese women and those with a family history of diabetes.
What is the cause of gestational diabetes?
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. During pregnancy insulin needs increase, and if the pancreas is not able to produce what is needed can trigger diabetes in pregnancy. Postpartum insulin requirements return to normal and diabetes disappears.
A woman who develops diabetes during pregnancy are at greater risk of later developing type 2 diabetes , as insulin production decreases with age. This risk can be greatly reduced if methods of healthy life are made including: diet healthy, exercise and regular physical maintenance of a normal weight.
What are the symptoms of gestational diabetes?
In most cases, gestational diabetes does not cause any symptoms and is detected in routine pregnancy tests. Rarely own some symptoms of diabetes appear.
Screening for gestational diabetes in a pregnant woman should always be measured glucose level. Women planning pregnancy should measure blood glucose in the following circumstances:
When the blood test shows elevated levels of some sugar but not definitively diagnostic of diabetes, you should perform a blood glucose curve to be sure. If the curve of blood glucose is normal, you must make a new determination of blood glucose 32nd -33 th week of pregnancy.
Therefore, pregnancy diabetes can be diagnosed with a simple blood glucose measurement such as blood glucose curve both.
If you have a family history of diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2.
If you have previously given birth to a child over 4.5 kg.
If you are overweight before pregnancy.
If you have more than 35 years.
If at any analysis detects sugar in the urine.
What is the treatment of gestational diabetes?
Generally, when needed insulin rapid-acting insulin slow-acting insulin at night is used before meals, e. It is always important medical monitoring by a specialist.
Gestational diabetes always requires treatment with diet.
Sometimes it is also necessary to administer insulin to control blood glucose level.
What types of medication used in the treatment of gestational diabetes?
Gestational diabetes is treated only with insulin of any of the following types:
In gestational diabetes oral agents are never used (taken by mouth) in pill form.
Rapid insulin or crystalline insulin
A mixture of both.
What can pregnant?
Maintaining a healthy diet with no animal fats and high in complex carbohydrates or depot (pasta, rice, vegetables …) and fresh vegetables and fruits.
The pregnant woman should be measured frequently their blood glucose levels to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. You should consult with a specialist in diabetes to manage their disease and the gynecologist to monitor the progression of the child during pregnancy.
After pregnancy should continue annual checks to detect whether the diabetes appears again. The likelihood of developing diabetes later can be reduced by:
Careful weight control preventing obesity
Making a healthy diet
Prognosis of diabetes in pregnancy
Poorly controlled diabetes during pregnancy carries significant risk to the newborn as:
For the mother, as already mentioned, increases the risk of later developing diabetes mellitus type II, but during the same pregnancy also increases the risk of hypertension and eclampsia (disease of late pregnancy that causes hypertension severe, seizures, and runs serious risk to the fetus and mother).
Proper medical management of diabetes in pregnancy dramatically reduces the associated risks.
Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar after birth)
Excessive birth weight with increased risk and complications during childbirth
Increased risk of congenital malformations and other diseases.